Antibiotics in dentistry

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Antibiotics in dentistry are used to suppress pathogenic microflora in infectious-inflammatory processes of chronic nature, affecting the maxillofacial region of the head and oral cavity. Choosing antibiotics for periodontitis and other diseases, in order to avoid side effects, determining its dosage, method of administration and duration of treatment, consider the patient's somatic condition, his age, weight and features of the clinical picture.

Are antibiotics always effective? Dentistry – A branch of medicine dealing with foci of infections with anaerobic and aerobic pathogens of different groups, whose sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs varies. Because of this, it is advisable to use bactericidal (which destroys the cell membrane of the bacteria) and bacteriostatic (which inhibits their reproduction) drugs.

The action of antibiotics is different. They can accumulate in bone tissue («Tetracycline», «Lincomycin», «Metronidazole»), block the action of bacterial enzymes («Amoxiclav», «Amoxicillin»), disrupt the formation of the supporting polymer of the cell wall («Oxacillin»), disrupt protein synthesis («Azithromycin»).

According to the method of action on the pathological microflora there are three groups of antibiotics:

  • Penicillins in powders and tablets. The drug fights against strains of anaerobic, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. They can be administered to patients of any age, which greatly expands the range of patients. Prescribed in the treatment of periodontal process of inflammatory etiology.
  • Cephalosporins. A group of antibiotics with a different spectrum of action, including four generations of drugs. It is reasonable to prescribe the drug for therapeutic purposes (in periodontal and odontogenic pathologies) and prophylactic ones – Before traumatic volumetric surgery.
  • Monobactams Have narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity. It is reasonable to use the drug for treatment of infections caused by aerobic gram-negative flora.
  • Carbapenems. These drugs are not only used in dentistry: antibiotics have a broad spectrum of action and are prescribed for the treatment of severe nosocomial infections of soft and bone tissues with multiresistant and mixed microflora.

Antibiotics in dentistry are used to treat chronic and acute pathologies of purulent-inflammatory nature. The list of such diseases includes periostitis, phlegmons, maxillary sinusitis, osteomyelitis, abscesses, periodontitis. Antibiotic treatment is relevant for the prevention of complications. Prescribe the drug as a course before elective surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus, endocarditis, glomerulonephritis.

Antibiotics for periodontitis

Progressive destruction of the alveolar processes, bleeding and looseness of the gums, loose teeth, persistent dental plaque – These are the symptoms of periodontitis. Treatment – Antibiotics, vitamins, antiseptic drugs, physiotherapy, local remedies, diet. Such a comprehensive approach allows to avoid serious complications – loss of teeth.

The treatment process is corrected at neglected forms of pathology and at exacerbation. Purulent discharge from gingival pockets with mechanical action, gingival abscesses and fistulas, abnormal tooth mobility and displacement – is chronic periodontitis. Antibiotics and other medications in such a case can be injected, for example «Clindamycin», as well as locally for the oral cavity, preparations for a quick effect in the form of sprays and ointments (Lincomycin), applications.

Enlargement of lymph nodes, their painfulness on palpation – a sign of intoxication or microbial allergy, which, if untreated, can cause periodontitis. Treatment with antibiotics in this case is supplemented by biogenic stimulants and broad-spectrum antiseptics.

Antibiotics for periodontitis – The gold standard in dentistry. Just like antibiotics for periodontal disease, they effectively destroy the structure of pathogens, thereby relieving inflammation, relieving pain and other symptomatic manifestations.

Antibiotics after tooth extraction

One of the surgical procedures in dentistry – wisdom tooth extraction. Preoperative antibiotics are prescribed for prophylactic purposes for patients with glomerulonephritis, endocarditis, diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised. Prophylaxis is possible in case of planned extraction, which is performed in case of atypical position and mobility of the unit, in chronic cysts and periodontitis, in case of mechanical damage without the possibility of recovery after sanitation of the oral cavity.

Also prescribed antibiotic after tooth extraction, if the surgery was performed in an emergency. More often «Ciprofloxacin», What antibiotics to take after a tooth extraction – Is prescribed by the dentist, taking into account the specific microflora. The main indications for such an extraction – Acute purulent inflammatory diseases with localization on bone tissue, abscesses, lymphadenitis, phlegmon. Antibiotics are used during tooth extraction if the tooth is not subject to conservative treatment, including filling, due to extensive destruction and loss of its functionality.

Antibiotics are prescribed for extraction of the wisdom tooth, if the integrity of the bone or soft tissue was violated during the procedure, which can subsequently provoke an infection, inflammation, and the formation of a flush. Antibiotics after wisdom tooth extraction are prescribed for these complications:

  • Alveolitis. Develops on day 3-4 after surgery and is characterized by a dry grayish hole with a whitish plaque. The pathology is characterized by an unpleasant odor, soreness, swelling of the cheek, fever up to 38-39 °C.
  • Apical periodontitis. Periodontal inflammation of infectious, traumatic or medicamentous nature is treated in complex. It is necessary to provide outflow of exudate, prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics, antiseptic treatment, canal filling.
  • Osteomyelitis. Purulent-necrotic process caused by pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteria. Hospitalization is necessary for this pathology. How and which antibiotics to take after tooth extraction for this pathology will be prescribed by the lead doctor.

What antibiotics are needed for dental treatment

Antibiotics for dental treatment are prescribed for inflammation of the bone tissue or the surrounding segment.

  • Abscess – frequently diagnosed inflammation of the tooth. Antibiotics are prescribed for gingival (flush), periodontal, or peripical localization of the infection. The cause of the abscess – Bacterial penetration into the dental pulp.
  • Antibiotics are prescribed when treating teeth affected by pulpitis. In this case, only the soft tissues are affected, there is no inflammation of the tooth root. Antibiotic helps with acute pain, temperature sensitivity, swelling, and other symptoms of pulpitis.

Antibiotic therapy in dentistry is provided for all infectious pathologies: necrotic process, sepsis, inflammation of the tooth root. Antibiotics are prescribed as a course of tablets, injections, ointments and solutions for applications.

Tooth abscess – what is it, why is it dangerous, how to treat a pus

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The infection causes an inflammatory process in the soft and hard tissues. If not treated adequately and under the influence of high temperatures (especially with hot drinkers or in the summer heat), a tooth abscess is likely. To avoid complications, it is important to see a doctor in time.

What is an abscess

Dental abscess – Acute inflammation in the tooth root area with subsequent suppuration accompanied by severe throbbing pain.

It is not only dangerous for the affected tooth, but also for the body as a whole. It is possible when the pus bursts, the infection enters the bloodstream and begins sepsis.

Symptoms of a tooth abscess

The inflammatory process in the tissues of the tooth and gum proceeds in stages, accompanied by different symptoms:

  • Discomfort, mild swelling, possible gingival bleeding during tooth brushing, sensitive soreness on pressure.
  • In later stages, swelling increases, there is a reaction to hot and cold food. Long-lasting pain and an unpleasant odor occur. In addition to local changes, the abscess is accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes in the neck, an increase in body temperature, general malaise.

A bitter aftertaste is palpable in the mouth, and the tooth body may change its color. It is important to remember: the symptoms of a gum abscess can manifest themselves differently – Everyone has a different threshold of pain sensitivity, perceives signals subjectively. Therefore, you should not wait for an acute condition, a prudent step – Visit a dental clinic at the first unexplained sensations.

What may be the complications

Even if the pain is dulled and symptoms are less severe, do not postpone going to the dentist. Such a situation can be a signal that the root is dying off and further spreading the infection to the organs of the head or neck.

Do not heat the area. This approach will bring short-term relief, but will accelerate fistula formation and stimulate the release of pus.

Possible serious complications: brain inflammation, pneumonia. Risk of sepsis, osteomyelitis, damage to the sinuses or brain membranes.

Causes of dental inflammation

The main causes that cause an abscess of the gum of the tooth, infection of the pulp:

  • Advanced tooth decay with lesions of the root apex. Inflammation develops against the background of periodontitis.
  • Untreated gingivitis and periodontitis (gum disease). Often develops as a post-traumatic complication: pathogenic microflora accumulates in the periodontal pockets.
  • Weakened immunity after diseases (flu, sore throat, others).
  • Iatrogenic factors – Bacteria got in after using non-sterile instruments during treatment, injections, improper tooth extraction.

The development of the inflammatory process may be preceded by damage to the oral mucosa, the formation of boils.

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Types and treatment of abscess

The nature of treatment depends on the cause of the gum inflammation, the size of the pus, its localization. The extraction of a unit is very rare today – Only in cases when it is too late to address the problem and the tooth can no longer be saved. Exception – Baby teeth, recent «Wise» Molars. After the surgery, the hole is cleaned and disinfected, and the healing process is monitored.

When choosing the method of intervention, the type of inflammation is taken into account. Distinguished:

  • Periodontal abscess. Develops in the pulp of the tooth, spreads to nearby areas. The goal of the dentist – Save the dental unit and restore the dental tissues. After cleaning, the canals are treated with modern antibacterial and antiseptic compositions to prevent reinfection. Only after that, a filling is made.
  • Periapical abscess. Pockets between the teeth and gums allow pathogenic microflora to multiply. A pus is formed, which is treated by opening, removing the contents. The pocket is cleaned and disinfected to prevent a recurrence.

Opening of the abscess with appropriate anesthesia – A small incision is made, pus is cleaned and the wound is rinsed with antiseptics. In case of severe suppuration, drainage of the mass is necessary, recovery therapy is required. Antibiotics, analgesics can be taken in parallel, under the doctor’s control, according to the doctor’s prescription. A comprehensive approach is important if the gum hurts and inflammation is detected.

Stages of treatment of a tooth abscess:

  • Make an appointment.
  • Diagnostics, X-ray examination to locate the nidus.
  • Formulation of a treatment plan, performance of procedures without pain under anesthesia.

Next, the doctor appoints the time of the visit for examination. And the patient will have healthy teeth and gums after healing. In general, the treatment of a gingival abscess consists of ensuring the outflow of purulent substance, eliminating the source of infection.

Abscess prevention

Tooth and gum inflammation – direct consequence of untimely treatment, delayed visit to the doctor. Therefore, the best way to prevent the disease – Pay attention to all daily hygiene procedures, professional cleaning at the dentist’s office and visit the dentist for preventive examinations once every six months.

Rational nutrition, avoiding bad habits, taking nutritional supplements of good quality are also important. Keep your smile beautiful and be healthy.