Antibiotics in dentistry

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Antibiotics in dentistry are used to suppress pathogenic microflora in infectious-inflammatory processes of chronic nature, affecting the maxillofacial region of the head and oral cavity. Choosing antibiotics for periodontitis and other diseases, in order to avoid side effects, determining its dosage, method of administration and duration of treatment, consider the patient's somatic condition, his age, weight and features of the clinical picture.

Are antibiotics always effective? Dentistry – A branch of medicine dealing with foci of infections with anaerobic and aerobic pathogens of different groups, whose sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs varies. Because of this, it is advisable to use bactericidal (which destroys the cell membrane of the bacteria) and bacteriostatic (which inhibits their reproduction) drugs.

The action of antibiotics is different. They can accumulate in bone tissue («Tetracycline», «Lincomycin», «Metronidazole»), block the action of bacterial enzymes («Amoxiclav», «Amoxicillin»), disrupt the formation of the supporting polymer of the cell wall («Oxacillin»), disrupt protein synthesis («Azithromycin»).

According to the method of action on the pathological microflora there are three groups of antibiotics:

  • Penicillins in powders and tablets. The drug fights against strains of anaerobic, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. They can be administered to patients of any age, which greatly expands the range of patients. Prescribed in the treatment of periodontal process of inflammatory etiology.
  • Cephalosporins. A group of antibiotics with a different spectrum of action, including four generations of drugs. It is reasonable to prescribe the drug for therapeutic purposes (in periodontal and odontogenic pathologies) and prophylactic ones – Before traumatic volumetric surgery.
  • Monobactams Have narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity. It is reasonable to use the drug for treatment of infections caused by aerobic gram-negative flora.
  • Carbapenems. These drugs are not only used in dentistry: antibiotics have a broad spectrum of action and are prescribed for the treatment of severe nosocomial infections of soft and bone tissues with multiresistant and mixed microflora.

Antibiotics in dentistry are used to treat chronic and acute pathologies of purulent-inflammatory nature. The list of such diseases includes periostitis, phlegmons, maxillary sinusitis, osteomyelitis, abscesses, periodontitis. Antibiotic treatment is relevant for the prevention of complications. Prescribe the drug as a course before elective surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus, endocarditis, glomerulonephritis.

Antibiotics for periodontitis

Progressive destruction of the alveolar processes, bleeding and looseness of the gums, loose teeth, persistent dental plaque – These are the symptoms of periodontitis. Treatment – Antibiotics, vitamins, antiseptic drugs, physiotherapy, local remedies, diet. Such a comprehensive approach allows to avoid serious complications – loss of teeth.

The treatment process is corrected at neglected forms of pathology and at exacerbation. Purulent discharge from gingival pockets with mechanical action, gingival abscesses and fistulas, abnormal tooth mobility and displacement – is chronic periodontitis. Antibiotics and other medications in such a case can be injected, for example «Clindamycin», as well as locally for the oral cavity, preparations for a quick effect in the form of sprays and ointments (Lincomycin), applications.

Enlargement of lymph nodes, their painfulness on palpation – a sign of intoxication or microbial allergy, which, if untreated, can cause periodontitis. Treatment with antibiotics in this case is supplemented by biogenic stimulants and broad-spectrum antiseptics.

Antibiotics for periodontitis – The gold standard in dentistry. Just like antibiotics for periodontal disease, they effectively destroy the structure of pathogens, thereby relieving inflammation, relieving pain and other symptomatic manifestations.

Antibiotics after tooth extraction

One of the surgical procedures in dentistry – wisdom tooth extraction. Preoperative antibiotics are prescribed for prophylactic purposes for patients with glomerulonephritis, endocarditis, diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised. Prophylaxis is possible in case of planned extraction, which is performed in case of atypical position and mobility of the unit, in chronic cysts and periodontitis, in case of mechanical damage without the possibility of recovery after sanitation of the oral cavity.

Also prescribed antibiotic after tooth extraction, if the surgery was performed in an emergency. More often «Ciprofloxacin», What antibiotics to take after a tooth extraction – Is prescribed by the dentist, taking into account the specific microflora. The main indications for such an extraction – Acute purulent inflammatory diseases with localization on bone tissue, abscesses, lymphadenitis, phlegmon. Antibiotics are used during tooth extraction if the tooth is not subject to conservative treatment, including filling, due to extensive destruction and loss of its functionality.

Antibiotics are prescribed for extraction of the wisdom tooth, if the integrity of the bone or soft tissue was violated during the procedure, which can subsequently provoke an infection, inflammation, and the formation of a flush. Antibiotics after wisdom tooth extraction are prescribed for these complications:

  • Alveolitis. Develops on day 3-4 after surgery and is characterized by a dry grayish hole with a whitish plaque. The pathology is characterized by an unpleasant odor, soreness, swelling of the cheek, fever up to 38-39 °C.
  • Apical periodontitis. Periodontal inflammation of infectious, traumatic or medicamentous nature is treated in complex. It is necessary to provide outflow of exudate, prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics, antiseptic treatment, canal filling.
  • Osteomyelitis. Purulent-necrotic process caused by pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteria. Hospitalization is necessary for this pathology. How and which antibiotics to take after tooth extraction for this pathology will be prescribed by the lead doctor.

What antibiotics are needed for dental treatment

Antibiotics for dental treatment are prescribed for inflammation of the bone tissue or the surrounding segment.

  • Abscess – frequently diagnosed inflammation of the tooth. Antibiotics are prescribed for gingival (flush), periodontal, or peripical localization of the infection. The cause of the abscess – Bacterial penetration into the dental pulp.
  • Antibiotics are prescribed when treating teeth affected by pulpitis. In this case, only the soft tissues are affected, there is no inflammation of the tooth root. Antibiotic helps with acute pain, temperature sensitivity, swelling, and other symptoms of pulpitis.

Antibiotic therapy in dentistry is provided for all infectious pathologies: necrotic process, sepsis, inflammation of the tooth root. Antibiotics are prescribed as a course of tablets, injections, ointments and solutions for applications.